The Song of Hiawatha: Five

THE SONG OF HIAWATHA

FIVE

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Hiawatha 5

And the chiefs made answer, saying:
“We have listened to your message,
We have heard your words of wisdom,
We will think on what you tell us.
It is well for us, O brothers,
That you come so far to see us!”
Then they rose up and departed
Each one homeward to his wigwam,
To the young men and the women
Told the story of the strangers
Whom the Master of Life had sent them
From the shining land of Wabun.
Heavy with the heat and silence
Grew the afternoon of Summer;
With a drowsy sound the forest
Whispered round the sultry wigwam,
With a sound of sleep the water
Rippled on the beach below it;
From the cornfields shrill and ceaseless
Sang the grasshopper, Pah-puk-keena;
And the guests of Hiawatha,
Weary with the heat of Summer,
Slumbered in the sultry wigwam.
Slowly o’er the simmering landscape
Fell the evening’s dusk and coolness,
And the long and level sunbeams
Shot their spears into the forest,
Breaking through its shields of shadow,
Rushed into each secret ambush,
Searched each thicket, dingle, hollow;
Still the guests of Hiawatha
Slumbered in the silent wigwam.

The Song of Hiawatha: Four

THE SONG OF HIAWATHA

FOUR

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Hiawatha 3

And the Black-Robe chief made answer,
Stammered in his speech a little,
Speaking words yet unfamiliar:
“Peace be with you, Hiawatha,
Peace be with you and your people,
Peace of prayer, and peace of pardon,
Peace of Christ, and joy of Mary!”
Then the generous Hiawatha
Led the strangers to his wigwam,
Seated them on skins of bison,
Seated them on skins of ermine,
And the careful old Nokomis
Brought them food in bowls of basswood,
Water brought in birchen dippers,
And the calumet, the peace-pipe,
Filled and lighted for their smoking.
All the old men of the village,
All the warriors of the nation,
All the Jossakeeds, the Prophets,
The magicians, the Wabenos,
And the Medicine-men, the Medas,
Came to bid the strangers welcome;
“It is well”, they said, “O brothers,
That you come so far to see us!”
In a circle round the doorway,
With their pipes they sat in silence,
Waiting to behold the strangers,
Waiting to receive their message;
Till the Black-Robe chief, the Pale-face,
From the wigwam came to greet them,
Stammering in his speech a little,
Speaking words yet unfamiliar;
“It is well,” they said, “O brother,
That you come so far to see us!”
Then the Black-Robe chief, the Prophet,
Told his message to the people,
Told the purport of his mission,
Told them of the Virgin Mary,
And her blessed Son, the Saviour,
How in distant lands and ages
He had lived on earth as we do;
How he fasted, prayed, and labored;
How the Jews, the tribe accursed,
Mocked him, scourged him, crucified him;
How he rose from where they laid him,
Walked again with his disciples,
And ascended into heaven.

The Song of Hiawatha: Three

THE SONG OF HIAWATHA

THREE

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Hiawatha 4

 And the noble Hiawatha,
With his hands aloft extended,
Held aloft in sign of welcome,
Waited, full of exultation,
Till the birch canoe with paddles
Grated on the shining pebbles,
Stranded on the sandy margin,
Till the Black-Robe chief, the Pale-face,
With the cross upon his bosom,
Landed on the sandy margin.
Then the joyous Hiawatha
Cried aloud and spake in this wise:
“Beautiful is the sun, O strangers,
When you come so far to see us!
All our town in peace awaits you,
All our doors stand open for you;
You shall enter all our wigwams,
For the heart’s right hand we give you.
“Never bloomed the earth so gayly,
Never shone the sun so brightly,
As to-day they shine and blossom
When you come so far to see us!
Never was our lake so tranquil,
Nor so free from rocks, and sand-bars;
For your birch canoe in passing
Has removed both rock and sand-bar.
“Never before had our tobacco
Such a sweet and pleasant flavor,
Never the broad leaves of our cornfields
Were so beautiful to look on,
As they seem to us this morning,
When you come so far to see us!’

The Song of Hiawatha: Two

THE SONG OF HIAWATHA

TWO

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Hiawatha 2

Toward the sun his hands were lifted,
Both the palms spread out against it,
And between the parted fingers
Fell the sunshine on his features,
Flecked with light his naked shoulders,
As it falls and flecks an oak-tree
Through the rifted leaves and branches.
O’er the water floating, flying,
Something in the hazy distance,
Something in the mists of morning,
Loomed and lifted from the water,
Now seemed floating, now seemed flying,
Coming nearer, nearer, nearer.
Was it Shingebis the diver?
Or the pelican, the Shada?
Or the heron, the Shuh-shuh-gah?
Or the white goose, Waw-be-wawa,
With the water dripping, flashing,
From its glossy neck and feathers?
It was neither goose nor diver,
Neither pelican nor heron,
O’er the water floating, flying,
Through the shining mist of morning,
But a birch canoe with paddles,
Rising, sinking on the water,
Dripping, flashing in the sunshine;
And within it came a people
From the distant land of Wabun,
From the farthest realms of morning
Came the Black-Robe chief, the Prophet,
He the Priest of Prayer, the Pale-face,
With his guides and his companions.

The Song of Hiawatha: One

THE SONG OF HIAWATHA

ONE

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Hiawatha 1

By the shore of Gitche Gumee,
By the shining Big-Sea-Water,
At the doorway of his wigwam,
In the pleasant Summer morning,
Hiawatha stood and waited.
All the air was full of freshness,
All the earth was bright and joyous,
And before him, through the sunshine,
Westward toward the neighboring forest
Passed in golden swarms the Ahmo,
Passed the bees, the honey-makers,
Burning, singing in the sunshine.
Bright above him shone the heavens,
Level spread the lake before him;
From its bosom leaped the sturgeon,
Sparkling, flashing in the sunshine;
On its margin the great forest
Stood reflected in the water,
Every tree-top had its shadow,
Motionless beneath the water.
From the brow of Hiawatha
Gone was every trace of sorrow,
As the fog from off the water,
As the mist from off the meadow.
With a smile of joy and triumph,
With a look of exultation,
As of one who in a vision
Sees what is to be, but is not,
Stood and waited Hiawatha.

Pemmican: The world’s best super-food?

Pemmican

pemmican pic

  • Pemmican is a high-energy food traditionally made, stored, and eaten by Native Americans.
  • The name comes from the Cree word pimi meaning fat or grease.
  • This food can be made from bison, deer, elk, moose, and fish.
  • Sometimes fruit, nuts, or berries are added.   The most popular flavors are peanut, cranberry, cherry, blueberry, currant, chokeberry, and saskatoon berry.
  • The meat is cut into thin strips and dried — either in the sun or over a fire — until it turns hard and brittle.
  • It is then pounded into a fine powder using heavy stones, and mixed with melted fat and any additional flavorings.
  • First Nation tribes stored their pemmican in rawhide bags.
  • Pemmican can be eaten raw, but it is more often boiled in a stew called rubaboo, or fried with onions and potatoes.
  • It was adopted by many European explorers because it was light to carry, nutritious, and travelled well.
  • It is said that pemmican can last as long as 50 years!

       Have you ever tried it?

Sources:

Wikipedia, “Pemmican” at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pemmican

 

 

Buffy Sainte-Marie’s SOLDIER BLUE

SOLDIER BLUE

(Buffy Sainte-Marie)

Custer Portrait

Tell you a story, and it’s a true one
And I’ll tell it like you’ll understand
And I ain’t gonna talk like some history man

I look out and I see a land
Young and lovely, hard and strong
For fifty thousand years we’ve danced her praises
Prayed our thanks and we’ve just begun

This is, this is my country
Young and growin’ and free and flowin’ sea to sea
Yes this is my country
Ripe and bearing miracles in every pond and tree

Her spirit walks the high country
She is givin’ free wild samples and settin’ an example
How to give, yes, this is my country
Retchin’ and turnin’, she’s like a baby learnin’ how to live

I can stand upon a hill at dawn
Look all around me, feel her surround me
Soldier blue, can’t you see her life has just begun?
It’s beating inside us, telling us she’s here to guide us

Ooh, soldier blue, soldier blue
Can’t you see that there’s another way to love her?

This is my country
And I sprang from her and I’m learnin’ how to count upon her
Tall trees and the corn is high country
Yes, I love her and I’m learnin’ how to take care of her

Whenever the news stories get me down
I, I take a drink of freedom to think of
North America from toe to crown
It’s never long before I know just why I belong here

Ooh, soldier blue, soldier blue
Can’t you see that there’s another way to love her?
Ooh, soldier blue, soldier blue
Can’t you see that there’s another way to love her?
Soldier blue, soldier blue
Can’t you see that there’s another way to love her?

25 Facts: The Sioux

Sioux Maiden

The Sioux

  1. The word Sioux is thought to be an abbreviation of the (possibly French) word Nadouessioux, meaning Little Snakes or Enemies.
  2. They historically call themselves The Seven Council Fires or The Seven Nations.
  3. The Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota Tribes are separated by three main languages.
  4. The Sioux originated from the source of the Mississippi River and then later migrated to the Dakotas, Minnesota, Iowa, Montana, and Western Canada.  Now they are also based in Nebraska.
  5. Dakota Sioux were traditionally woodland people who thrived on fishing, farming, and hunting.
  6. Lakota Sioux were introduced to horses by the Cheyenne and lived a nomadic life on the prairies, surviving on bison and corn.
  7. Nakota Sioux also lived as Plains Indians.
  8. In the late Seventeenth Century the Dakota Sioux entered into an alliance with French fur-traders, competing against the English Hudson Bay Company.
  9. The Treaty of Fort Laramie established the Great Sioux Reservation in 1888.
  10. Sioux warriors often allied with the Cheyenne to fight their traditional enemies – the Pawnee.  Later they also banded together against the United States military.
  11. Leaders are chosen based on their noble birth.  They have to demonstrate bravery, fortitude, generosity, and wisdom.
  12. Warriors have two fraternal society structures – one for young men (like the Kit-Fox, Elk, and Dog Soldiers), and one for the elders.
  13. Family is the center of Sioux life and children are held sacred.
  14. The Sioux are a very spiritual people who worship Wakan Tanka (The Great Mystery).
  15. Mystical visions are accessed through ritual, prayer, music, dance, and self-sacrifice.
  16. Medicine Men are their holy leaders.  The most important religious ceremony is the annual Sun Dance, held at the time of the Summer Solstice when the moon is full.
  17. Symbolism is also important in Sioux culture.  For example, the Medicine Wheel represents the Circle of Life, and unity with the Great Spirit.
  18. The Sioux once practiced The Ghost Dance, based on the promise of a return to the old ways by the Indian prophet Wovoka.
  19. One of their most famous leaders was Chief Red Cloud who fought the US government for control of the Powder River County in Wyoming.
  20. Chief Sitting Bull was another great warrior.  He led the charge at the Battle of the Little Bighorn that helped defeat George Armstrong Custer.
  21. Crazy Horse was one of the most feared Sioux war leaders.
  22. The large number of First Nation people were massacred at Wounded Knee Creek in 1890. This signaled a formal end to the Great Sioux Nation.
  23. Today, the largest Sioux presence lives on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota.
  24. Although there is widespread unemployment on the reservation, the Sioux are engaged in farming and ranching, including the raising of bison.  The area held by the Oglala Lakota is said to be the poorest place in the country.
  25. Black Elk recorded the Sioux’s passing in his famous book Black Elk Speaks.

Want to know more?  Watch this wonderful documentary about how the Battle of the Little Bighorn led to The Last of the Sioux:

http://www.history.com/topics/native-american-history/native-american-cultures/videos/the-last-of-the-sioux

 

Sources:

Curtis, Edwards S. The North American Indian: The Complete Portfolios.  Koln: Taschen, 1997.

Debo, Angie. A History of the Indians of the United States.  London: Folio Society, 2003.

Mooney, James. The Ghost-Dance Religion and the Sioux Outbreak of 1890. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1991.

Neihardt, John G. Black Elk Speaks. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1988.

Wikipedia, “Sioux” at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sioux

 

25 Facts: The Cheyenne

 

Cheyenne

The Cheyenne

  1. The word Cheyenne is thought to come from the Sioux Shai-ena, meaning People of a different speech.
  2. They call themselves Tsitsistas (Our People).
  3. The Cheyenne originated in Minnesota, but moved through the Dakotas and onto the Great Plains when they acquired horses from the Spaniards.
  4. Their farming communities switched from harvesting corn, beans, and squash to become nomadic hunters who followed after the huge buffalo herds.
  5. They soon became superb riders who shot antelope, deer, elk, and bison from the backs of their horses.
  6. If they needed to cross water the men crafted tub-shaped boats from a frame of branches covered with buffalo hide.
  7. Around 1832 the tribe split to become the Northern Cheyenne (now based in Montana), and the Southern Cheyenne (now in Oklahoma).
  8. The Northern Cheyenne guard the Sacred Buffalo Hat – an important religious artifact.
  9. The Southern Cheyenne protect the equally-revered Sacred Arrows.
  10. Both tribes worship two main deities: Heammawihio (The Wise One Above), and Ahktunowihio (The Divine Spirit of the Earth).  They also honor four powerful spirits associated with the North, South, East, and West.
  11. The Cheyenne believe in ghosts and underwater monsters.
  12. Eagles symbolize strength and power.
  13. Bears bring good fortune.
  14. Deer represent endurance.
  15. The buffalo was considered a sacred animal because it provided almost everything the Plains Indian needed.
  16. Traditionally, the men hunted, made tools, and defended their tribe.
  17. Dog Soldiers were the fiercest of the Warrior bands that also included Fox Soldiers, Chief Soldiers, and Bowstring Soldiers.
  18. Women were responsible for setting up their mobile tipi homes, gathering and cooking food, making clothes, caring for the young, sick, and old, and for preparing animal skins.
  19. Girls were chaperoned by older women to protect their virtuous reputations.
  20. Boys were allowed to go to war after they had completed their first buffalo hunt.
  21. The Cheyenne were a polygamous society where a man could wed many wives.  But if one of them wished for a divorce she simply placed her husband’s belongings outside her tipi and the marriage was over.
  22. One of the most important ceremonies still practiced is the annual eight-day Sun Dance.
  23.  Their mourning rites include traditional prayer and song.  Female family members often cut off their hair as a mark of respect.  Some women slice their legs with hunting knives too.
  24. The Cheyenne fought several major battles in the Indian Wars, most notably at Sand Creek, Washita River, and Little Bighorn.
  25. Like many other Native American Tribes, the Cheyenne were forced onto reservations during the late nineteenth century.

Want to know more?  Watch this wonderful documentary about the Sun Dance  and how the Sacred Circle is passed on to as new generation:

Sources:

Debo, Angie.  A History of the Indians of the United States (London: Folio Society, 2003)

De Capua, Sarah.  The First Americans: The Cheyenne (New York: Marshall Cavendish, 2007)

Wikipedia, “Cheyenne” at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheyenne

Cher’s HALF-BREED

Half-breed

(Al Capps, Mary Dean)

Half-breed

 

My father married a pure Cherokee
My mother’s people were ashamed of me
The Indians said I was white by law
The white man always called me
“Indian Squaw”

[Chorus]
Half-breed, that’s all I ever heard
Half-breed, how I learned to hate the word
Half-breed, she’s no good they warned
Both sides were against me
Since the day I was born

We never settled, went from town to town
When you’re not welcome you don’t hang around
The other children always laughed at me
“Give her a feather, she’s a Cherokee”

[Chorus]

We weren’t accepted and I felt ashamed
Nineteen I left them, tell me who’s to blame
My life since then has been from man to man
But I can’t run away from what I am

[Chorus]

Warrior Women: Woman Chief

Woman Chief (1806-1854)

  • Woman Chief was a revered female warrior of the Crow Tribe.
  • She may also have been called Pine Leaf and Biawacheeitche.
  • This Warrior Woman was born into the Gros Ventres people of Montana.
  • After being taken prisoner at the age of 10, Woman Chief was raised by the Crows.
  • Since her adopted father had lost all his sons, he encouraged her tom-boy pursuits.
  • Yet even when engaging in masculine activities she always wore female attire.
  • Woman Chief excelled at horse riding, shooting, and dressing buffalo.
  • When he father died she took control of his lodge and went on several raids against the Blackfoot.
  • She raised her own band of warriors that took many horses and scalps.
  • Woman Chief had four wives.
  • Following the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1851), she became involved in inter-tribal negotiations.
  • After several years of peace this remarkable warrior was ambushed and killed by her original birth tribe.

Sources:

Brodell, Ria. “Butch Heroes,” at https://www.riabrodell.com/biawacheeitche-or-woman-chief-aka-barcheeampe-or-pine-leaf/

Wikipedia, “Woman Chief,” at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woman_Chief

Warrior Women: Nancy Ward (Nanyehi)

Nancy Ward (c. 1738 – 1822)

  • Nancy Ward was a Cherokee War Woman from Tennessee.
  • She was also called Nanyehi.
  • Some claim her father was a British officer named Ward, but others argue that he was a member of the Delaware Tribe.
  • In 1755, her husband – Kingfisher – was killed in action against the Muscogee Creeks.  She was with him on the battlefield, helping to load his musket.
  • Although only 18 years old, Nancy Ward picked up her fallen husband’s weapon, rallied the surrounding warriors, and led them to victory.
  • She was given the title Ghigau (War Woman / Beloved Woman) for her bravery.
  • This warrior woman believed in a peaceful co-existence with the colonists.
  • Through her interactions with the early Europeans, she brought farming and dairy production to Cherokee society.  A prisoner whose life was spared by Ward – Mrs. Lydia Russell Bean – taught the women how to weave cloth.
  • Nancy Ward also owned African American slaves who worked in her fields.
  • Legend claims that she had a recurring vision forewarning the Trail of Tears that would leave behind “a trail of corpses – the weak, the sick who could not survive the journey.”

Sources:

Carney, Virginia Moore.  Eastern Band Cherokee Women.  Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press, 2005.

Finger, John R. Eastern Band of Cherokees: 1819-1900. Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press, 1984.

Wikipedia, “Nancy Ward,” at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nancy_Ward

Warrior Women: Moving Robe Woman (Thasina Mani)

Moving Robe Woman (1854 – c. 1931)

  • Moving Robe Woman was a member of the Hunkpapa Sioux.
  • She was also called Thasina Mani, Mary Crawler, Her Eagle Robe, She Walks With A Shawl, and Walking Blanket Woman.
  • Her father was Chief Crawler.
  • She was the sister of One Hawk or Deeds, a warrior killed at the start of the Battle of the Little Bighorn.
  • At the age of 17 she had taken part in a Sioux raid against the Crow, in Montana.
  • Moving Robe Woman gained fame when she rode alongside her father – against Lt. Colonel Custer – to avenge her brother’s death.
  • A brave named Fast Eagle claimed he held Custer’s arms while Moving Robe Woman stabbed him.  She was also credited with the death of a black soldier called Isiah Dorman.
  • Charging into battle this Warrior Woman rode a black horse, painted her face crimson, and braided her hair.
  • In an interview in 1931 she claimed, ” . . . I have not boasted of my conquests.  I am a woman, but I fought for my people.”

Sources:

AmericanTribes.com, “Mary Crawler,” at http://www.american-tribes.com/Lakota/BIO/MaryCrawler.htm

Geni.com, “Moving Robe Woman, Thasina Mani,” at https://www.geni.com/people/Moving-Robe-Woman-T%C8%9Fa%C5%A1%C3%ADna-M%C3%A1ni/6000000031182145889

Wikipedia, “Moving Robe Woman,” at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moving_Robe_Woman

Warrior Women: Buffalo Calf Road Woman

Buffalo Calf Road Woman (c. 1850 – 1879)

  • Buffalo Calf Road Woman was born around 1850 into the Northern Cheyenne Tribe.
  • She was married to Black Coyote and had two children.
  • This Warrior Woman gained fame when she rescued her brother, Comes In Sight, at the Battle of the Rosebud in 1876.
  • Comes In Sight and his horse were injured and left on the battlefield when the Cheyenne retreated.  Buffalo Calf Road Woman rode out under fire, at full gallop, hauled up her brother, and managed to get him to safety.
  • Her remarkable act of bravery rallied the remaining Cheyenne toward a final victorious push against General George Cook’s soldiers.
  • In her honor, the Cheyenne call the Battle of the Rosebud, The Fight Where The Girl Saved Her Brother.
  • She also accompanied her husband in the Battle of the Little Bighorn (1876).  Legend claims she was the warrior who knocked Lt. Colonel George Armstrong Custer from his horse before he died.
  • Buffalo Calf Road Woman and Black Coyote were part of the Northern Cheyenne exodus from Indian Territory in 1878, led by Dull Knife and Little Wolf.
  • The family were captured on route and taken into custody.
  • The Warrior Woman died from diphtheria in Miles City the following year.

Sources:

Amazing Women In History, “Buffalo Calf Road Woman: http://www.amazingwomeninhistory.com/buffalo-calf-road-cheyenne-warrior-woman/

Wikipedia, “Buffalo Calf Road, Heroic Cheyenne Warrior Woman,” at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buffalo_Calf_Road_Woman

Warrior Women: Lozen

Lozen (c. 1840-1889)

  • Lozen was an Apache Warrior Woman, born sometime around 1840.
  • Her childhood name was Little Sister, which later became Lozen – meaning spirited.
  • Her brother was Chief Victorio.
  • This Apache band resisted confinement on the San Carlos Reservation (Arizona) and sought refuge in Mexico.
  • Lozen fought alongside the men and accompanied Geronimo in the last campaign of the Apache Wars.  After they were forced to surrender she was taken prisoner by the U.S. military.
  • Victorio called Lozen the “shield to her people,” admiring her military strategies and skills.
  • She was a gifted horsewoman.
  • Lozen was also considered to be a Shaman or Medicine Woman.  Legend claims she could predict an enemy approach and that she had magical healing powers.  She was often called on to act as a midwife.
  • One of her famous acts of bravery was to lead her people to safety across the dangerously swollen Rio Grande River.
  • She died from tuberculosis in a military prison in Alabama.

Sources:

McWilliams, John P. Against the Wind: Courageous Apache Woman.  New York: Page, 2016.

Wikipedia, “Lozen,” at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lozen

Kit’s Crit: Dodge City (Tom Clavin)

Dodge City: Wyatt Earp, Bat Masterson. and the Wickedest Town In the American West

(Tom Clavin)

Although Dodge City  has the Author’s Note, Illustrations, Bibliography, and Index of a non-fiction book, the tone and lack of scholarly footnotes makes the book appear more like one of the hybrid non-fiction/fiction books recently made popular by writers such as Erik Larson.  It is an account of how the Earp and Masterson families brought frontier justice to the “wickedest town in the American west” during the late Nineteenth Century.

A lot of interesting facts come to light throughout the tale.  Parts of the book are particularly entertaining and will undoubtedly appeal to the western reader, though scholars may argue the accuracy of some minor details.  The latter half of the book is the most engaging.

But whereas writers like Larson manage to effortlessly weave their history within a narrative setting, Clavin’s work is clunky and too reliant on a journalistic approach, darting around from person to person, following after minor characters, with no consistent timeline, story, or authorial voice to join things together.  In Chapter Ten, Clavin adopts a casual tone:  “After all that Bat had been through on many a hoof-beaten trail, this town probably seemed like a good place to slap the dust off his clothes, wet his whistle, and enjoy the company of good gamblers and not-so-good women (118).”  Yet three chapters later a more academic voice explains, “In May 1877, The Kansas City Times sent one of its reporters the 335 miles west to give readers a glimpse of the young city on the edge of the frontier that the people in the east were hearing more and more about.  He stepped off the train at 8.30 A.M., ‘in the tranquil stillness of the morning.  In this respect Dodge is peculiar.  She awakens from her slumbers about eleven A.M., takes her sugar and lemon at twelve, a square meal at one P.M., commences biz at two o’clock, gets lively at four, and at ten it is hip-liiphurrail till five in the morning (151)’.”  This mix of popular and academic writing does not work well together.

That said, I believe Dodge City is worth reading for the detailed insight into Wyatt Earp and Bat Masterson.  I particularly enjoyed Clavin’s efforts to show how these figures interacted with other legends of the American west.  And I certainly know a whole lot more about Dodge City than I ever did before!

 

 

SHE’LL BE COMING ‘ROUND THE MOUNTAINS

She’ll Be Coming ‘Round The Mountains

(Traditional)

 

She’ll be coming ’round the mountain when she comes,

(when she comes)

She’ll be coming ’round the mountain when she comes,

(when she comes)

She’ll be coming ’round the mountain,

She’ll be coming ’round the mountain,

She’ll be coming ’round the mountain when she comes,

(when she comes).

 

She’ll be driving six white horses when she comes,

(when she comes)

She’ll be driving six white horses when she comes,

(when she comes)

She’ll be driving six white horses,

She’ll be driving six white horses,

She’ll be driving six white horses when she comes,

(when she comes).

 

We’ll all go out to meet her when she comes,

We’ll all go out to meet her when she comes,

We’ll all go out to meet her,

We’ll all go out to meet her,

We’ll all go out to meet her when she comes.

 

We’ll kill the old red rooster when she comes,

(when she comes)

We will kill the big red rooster when she comes,

(when she comes)

We’ll kill the big red rooster,

We will kill the big red rooster,

We’ll kill the big red rooster when she comes,

(when she comes).

 

She will bring us to the portals when she comes,

(when she comes)

She will bring us to the portals when she comes,

(when she comes)

She will bring us to the portals,

She will bring us to the portals,

She will bring us to the portals when she comes,

(when she comes).

 

We’ll all sing hallelujah when she comes,

(when she comes)

We’ll all sing hallelujah when she comes,

(when she comes)

We’ll all sing hallelujah,

We’ll all sing hallelujah,

We’ll all sing hallelujah when she comes,

(when she comes).

 

She’ll be coming ’round the mountain when she comes,

(when she comes)

She’ll be coming ’round the mountain when she comes,

(when she comes)

She’ll be coming ’round the mountain,

She’ll be coming ’round the mountain,

She’ll be coming ’round the mountain when she comes,

(when she comes).

 

She’ll be coming ’round the mountain when she comes,

(when she comes)

She’ll be coming ’round the mountain when she comes,

(when she comes)

She’ll be coming ’round the mountain,

She’ll be coming ’round the mountain,

She’ll be coming ’round the mountain when she comes,

(when she comes).

 

 

“Endless” Brown Bread

“Endless” brown bread uses the left-over crumbs from one loaf to help create another.  This way, nothing ever gets wasted!

 

Ingredients:

1 cup old bread crumbs

2 cups cold water

1/2 teaspoon salt

1/2 cup molasses

1 cup cornmeal

1 cup whole wheat flour

2 tablespoons baking soda

1 cup white or rye flour

Grease for pan

 

Method:

  1. Heat a conventional oven to 350 / 177/ gas 4.
  2. Grease a bread loaf pan.
  3. Soak the old breadcrumbs in the water until soft.
  4. Add the molasses.
  5. Mix the salt, cornmeal ,flours, and baking soda in a large bowl.
  6. Add the wet breadcrumb mix, and stir together until thoroughly combined and moist.
  7. Spoon in the loaf pan.  Press to shape.
  8. Cook in a Dutch oven on the open fire until done.  Or bake in a kitchen oven for approximately 40 minutes.

 

Bareback Riding

  • Bareback riding is often associated with the early Native Americans, particularly the Comanche, Plains Indians, and the Nez Perce tribes.
  • Riding without a formal saddle requires a great deal of practice, skill, balance, coordination, and courage.
  • Native riders traditionally learn to leap astride their animals from the ground, but a mounting block or fence rail can also be used.
  • In warfare, horses were often used as shields.  Riders lay protected along the outside of their horses and practiced firing weapons as they rode into battle.
  • The horse’s mane could be held for balance.
  • Before the arrival of the European saddle, riders controlled their horses with a simple war bridle made from hide.  This was looped over the lower jaw of the horse and extended into either a single or double rein.
  • Bareback riding is more tiring for both horse and rider because there is no support from a saddle.
  • Riders are required to sit further forward in order to maintain control without excessive gripping.  They ride core-high, with straight legs and their heels flexed downward.
  • Blankets or pads can be used to provide more comfort, but these often slip.
  • It is warmer to ride bareback in winter.
  • Many equestrians like bareback riding because they believe it creates a closer bond with their horse.

English Riding

Do you ride English or Western?
What is the difference?

English Riding:

  • English riding came from the British military tradition.  The saddle – featuring a knee-roll – is smaller and lighter than the Western version, allowing more direct contact with the horse’s back.

  • The rider uses the reins, seat, and legs to control the horse’s speed and direction, and has more direct contact with its mouth.
  • The rider takes a rein in each hand.
  • The stirrups are thinner than on a Western saddle.
  • Riders wear formal clothing – a fitter jacket, shirt, jodhpurs, tall boots, and a helmet.
  • The English saddle is suited to dressage, polo, hunting, and jumping activities.
  • Some skill is needed to ride English, because it is more difficult for riders to maintain their balance in these smaller saddles.

Western Riding

Do you ride English or Western?

What is the difference?

Western Riding:

  • Western riding involves a larger, heavier saddle because it developed from the working ranch tradition.  Cowboys needed to cover long distances, and this endurance-saddle spread the weight more evenly across the back of the horse.

  • The stirrups are thicker than on an English saddle.
  • This form of riding is more suited to rodeo and ranching activities.
  • The rider uses the seat, their weight, and neck-reining to signal instructions to the horse.
  • They take both reins in one hand, leaving the other hand free to work cattle (or rest on the thigh).
  • Traditional western clothing is worn – jeans, cowboy boots, and hats.
  • In remote locations, guns may also be carried or strapped to the saddle.
  • This type of riding is easier for beginners.  The large saddle, raised cantle, and pommel provide a more secure seat than the English version.

Thin Lizzy’s BUFFALO GAL

Buffalo Gal

(Billy Lynott)

(Buffalo  . . .)

Buffalo Gal,
You’ve had your fun.
Your button’s undone
And the time’s right for slaughter.
Buffalo Gal,
You’re thirsty and there’s no more water,
Like the lamb on the altar,
And it’s sad to see you looking down and feeling blue.
Try your best to get on up and see it through!
In a while you might smile and see the sun
Oww, the day has begun.

And Buffalo Gal,
They’re closing down the old dance hall.
Ummm, Buffalo Gal,
What we gonna do now?

Buffalo Gal,
Due to these circumstances
There’s no more dances.
Buffalo Gal,
(Buffalo) all your chances of further romances
Will have to be nil,
Until I can get it sung.
Is a shame your only claim to fame is Jessie James –
You know his middle name –
That’s very strange.
Stranger, you knew a friend called the Friendly Ranger
Oh, you shared the danger.

And Buffalo Gal,
They’re closing down the old dance hall.
Ummm, Buffalo Gal,
What we gonna do now?

(Buffalo . . .)

Buffalo Gal,
You must try a big step.
You’ve got a big jump ahead!
Buffalo Gal,
The show left town
Spreading sunshine all around
And it’s bad to see you looking blue.
Dry your eyes and I’ll apologise for all the lies.
Try a smile and in a while, just in a while,
You’ll be smiling through!

Ooh, Buffalo Gal,
They’re closing down the old dance hall (Buffalo . . . Gal, Gal)
And Buffalo Gal,
Oh, you look so good somehow (Buffalo . . . Gal)
Oh Buffalo Gal,
Oh, that’s such a pretty dress (Buffalo . . . Gal)
Buffalo Gal,
The show left town (Buffalo . . . Gal, Gal)
Buffalo Gal,
Take a picture
Of Buffalo Gal (Buffalo . . .)

The Pinkerton Detectives

  • The Pinkerton Detective Agency was founded by a former police officer – Allan Pinkerton – in 1850.
  • Their first office was in Chicago.
  • During the Civil War the Pinkertons gained fame as the personal body-guards to the president-elect, Abraham Lincoln.  They claimed to have foiled an early assassination plot against him.
  • At the height of its power the Pinkerton’s National Detective Agency was the largest private law-enforcement agency in the world.
  • They also acted as strike-breakers, sometimes hiring goon-squads to intimidate workers during labor disputes.
  • Kate Warne became the first female detective in 1856.
  • John Scobell was their first African-American Intelligence Agent during the Civil War.
  • Their Conduct Code included: 1. No bribes – 2. No compromising with criminals – 3. Support local law-enforcement – 4. Refuse divorce cases – 5. Avoid scandal cases – 6. Do not accept reward money – 7. Only raise client fees with prior notification – and 8. Give clients regular updates on progress.
  • The Pinkertons were hired to pursue the James-Younger Gang, the Dalton Gang, and Butch Cassidy’s Wild Bunch.
  • They were the first detectives to collect mug shots and develop a criminal database.
  • When Allan Pinkerton died in 1884 the business passed to his sons, Robert and William.  Later it went to his grandson, Allan Pinkerton II (1907), and then to his great-grandson, Robert Pinkerton II (1930).
  • In 1906 there were 20 U.S. offices, and when the corporate office moved to New York in 1960 the agency began expanding internationally.
  • Today, it is the largest security services provider in the world and recently relocated to a new global headquarters in Michigan.
  • Their famous logo – “We Never Sleep” – triggered the nickname private eye for all future detectives.

Sources:

History Lists, “10 Things You May Not Know About The Pinkertons,” at http://www.history.com/news/history-lists/10-things-you-may-not-know-about-the-pinkertons

Pinkerton.com, “History,” at https://www.pinkerton.com/about-us/history/

Wikipedia, “Pinkerton (detective agency),” at  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinkerton_(detective_agency)

 

Trench Beans

Ingredients:

1lb dry pinto beans

1 chopped onion

1 tablespoon salt

1 tablespoon Worcestershire Sauce

1 tablespoon A-1 Steak Sauce

1/4 teaspoon Tabasco Sauce

1 teaspoon lemon pepper

1 teaspoon garlic powder

 

Method:

  1. Soak the dry pinto beans overnight.
  2. Bring to the boil and then immediately reduce the heat, with just enough water to cover the beans.
  3. Simmer on low until the beans become tender.  Stir frequently and do not overcook.
  4. Add the onion, salt, Worcestershire Sauce, A-1 Steak Sauce, Tabasco Sauce, pepper, and garlic powder.  Stir well.
  5. Simmer for an additional half-hour.  Serve hot.

 

The James-Younger Gang

The James-Younger Gang

  • The James-Younger Gang is probably the most famous of all the outlaw bands.
  • Originating out of a Missouri bush-whacking background during the American Civil War, these desperados turned to crime between 1860 – 1882.
  • They later expanded into Kentucky, Iowa, Texas, Arkansas, West Virginia, and Kansas.
  • They are credited with the first ever daylight, peace-time, armed robbery of a U.S. bank.
  • The gang had two core families: The James Brothers (Jesse and Frank) and the Younger Brothers (Cole, Jim, John, and Bob).
  • Other brothers came and went, including the Fords (Robert and Charles), McDaniels (William and Tom), Pences (Bud and Donny), Shepards (George and Oliver), and the Wilkersons (Bill and James).
  • At various times the gang was also said to contain Thomas Coleman, John Jarrett, Arthur McCoy, Jacob Gregg, Joab Perry, Hobbs Kerry, Jim Anderson, Matthew Nelson, Archie Clement, Allen Parmer, Charles Taylor, Clell Miller, Charlie Pitts, Bill Chadwell, Ben Cooper, and Red Munkers / Munkirs.
  • The James and Younger Brothers were excellent horsemen who traded and raced thoroughbreds.
  • Although they killed a numbers of people on raids, they were well-educated and could pass as gentlemen.
  • The gang gained notoriety for robbing stagecoaches, trains, and banks.
  • The Pinkerton Detective Agency was eventually hired to track down the outlaws, but they evaded capture with the support of family and friends.
  • A huge reward was offered in the hope that one of their own members would betray the infamous leaders.
  • Robert Ford succumbed.  Ford shot Jesse James in the back of the head, in his own home, while he was straightening a picture on the wall.  This murder signaled the end of the James-Younger Gang.

Sources:

Legends Of America, “The James-Younger Gang: Terrorism In The Heartland,” at  http://www.legendsofamerica.com/we-jamesyoungergang.html

HistoryNet, “James-Younger Gang,” at http://www.historynet.com/james-younger-gang

Rosa, Joseph, G. Age of the Gunfighter: Man and Weapons on the Frontier, 1840-1900. Oklahoma: U of Oklahoma P, 1995.

Wikipedia, “James-Younger Gang,” at  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James%E2%80%93Younger_Gang

Sour-Milk Pancakes

Sour-Milk Pancakes

 

Ingredients:

1 1/4 cups of sour milk

2 eggs

2 tablespoons vegetable oil

1 1/4 cups flour

1/4 teaspoon salt

1 teaspoon baking powder

1 teaspoon sugar

1/2 cup blueberries or raisins

grease for cooking

 

Method:

  1. Beat together the eggs, sour milk, and vegetable oil in a large bowl.
  2. Sift the flour, salt, baking powder and sugar in the bowl.  Fold thoroughly into the liquid and stir until a smooth batter forms.
  3. Heat a well-greased griddle.  Pour several 1/2-cups of batter in rounds to cook.  This recipe makes about 12 pancakes.
  4. Add the berries or raisins while the batter is soft.  Press into shape with a spatula.  Turn half-way through cooking to evenly brown both sides.
  5. Serve with butter, maple syrup, or apple sauce!

 

 

 

Johnny Cash’s (GHOST) RIDERS IN THE SKY

(Ghost) Riders In The Sky

(Hughie Thomasson)

 

An old cowboy went riding out, one dark and windy day,
Upon a ridge he rested as he went along his way,
When all at once a mighty herd of red eyed cows he saw
A-plowing through the ragged sky and up the cloudy draw.

Their brands were still on fire and their hooves were made of steel,
Their horns were black and shiny and their hot breath he could feel,
A bolt of fear went through him as they thundered through the sky
For he saw the riders coming hard and he heard their mournful cry:

Yippie yi ooh!
Yippie yi yay!
Ghost riders in the sky.

Their faces gaunt, their eyes were blurred, their shirts all soaked with sweat.
He’s riding hard to catch that herd, but he ain’t caught them yet,
Because they’ve got to ride forever on that range up in the sky,
On horses snorting fire,
As they ride on, hear their cry.

As the riders loped on by him he heard one call his name –
“If you want to save your soul from hell a-riding on our range,
Then cowboy, change your ways today, or with us you will ride
Trying to catch the devil’s herd, across these endless skies!”

Yippie yi ooh!
Yippie yi yay!

Ghost riders in the sky.
Ghost riders in the sky.
Ghost Riders in the sky.

 

The Dalton Gang

  • The Dalton Gang were active between 1890-1892, in Kansas and Indian Territory (Oklahoma).
  • Their name came from the three Dalton-brother members: Bob (1868-1892), Emmett “Em”(1871-1937), and Gratton “Grat” (1865-1892).
  • An older brother – Frank – had been a Deputy Marshal, but he was killed in 1888.  His three siblings initially followed in his footsteps and only turned to crime after they were not paid for upholding the law.
  • The Dalton family came from Indian Territory and later settled in Kansas.
  • They were related to the Younger Brothers who rode with Jesse James.
  • This gang specialized in bank and train robberies.
  • They were notoriously violent and sometimes shot innocent bystanders.
  • Other members included Dick Broadwell, Bill Power, Bill Doolin, Charlie Bryant, Charley Pierce, and George Newcomb.
  • The majority of the gang was killed trying to rob two banks at the same time, when the townsfolk of Coffeyville (Kansas) protected their money in a lengthy shootout.

Sources:

History.com, “This Day In History,” at http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/the-dalton-gang-is-wiped-out-in-coffeyville-kansas

HistoryNet, “The Dalton Gang,” at http://www.historynet.com/dalton-gang

Rosa, Joseph, G. Age of the Gunfighter: Man and Weapons on the Frontier, 1840-1900. Oklahoma: U of Oklahoma P, 1995.

Wikipedia, “Dalton Gang,” at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dalton_Gang

 

Wild West Hard Tack

Hard Tack

Ingredients

Bacon grease for cooking

2 cups flour

1 tablespoon salt

Water (to form a stiff dough)

 

Method

  1. Mix the four and salt together in a large pot.
  2. Add enough water to form a stiff, non-sticky dough.
  3. Roll out on a  floured surface into a 1/2-inch slab and cut into 3-inch squares.
  4. Punch several nail-holes in each piece to allow the steam to escape during cooking.
  5. Grease a fire-proof baking pan or Dutch-oven and place it on the fire.
  6. Add hard tack pieces and cover with a lid.
  7. Bake until brown.

 

Tomahawks

  • A tomahawk is a single-handled ax from North America.
  • It closely resembles a hatchet.
  • This multi-purpose chopping tool was familiar to both Native Americans and Colonials.
  • It could also be used as a weapon, either in hand-to-hand combat or thrown from a distance.
  • The tomahawk is thought to have been invented by the Algonquin Indians.
  • The first designs were made from flint, bound by rawhide to a wooden handle.
  • When the Europeans arrived they introduced a more effective metal blade.
  • They are usually about 2-feet long with maple, hickory, or ash handles.
  • The opposite side of the blade could form a spike, hammer, or be drilled to make a smoking-pipe.
  • The tomahawk became a popular symbol when Colonists and Native Tribes met – they could choose the pipe of peace or the ax of war!

The Sundance Kid

Henry Alonzo Longabaugh

(1867-1908)

  • Henry Alonzo Longabaugh was born in Pennsylvania.
  • He stole a gun, horse, and saddle from a ranch in Sundance, Wyoming.
  • After he served time for this crime in the local jail he adopted the nickname, Sundance Kid.
  • His girlfriend (pictured above) was Etta Place.  She and Butch Cassidy fled the country with Sundance.
  • There was a reward of $30,000 on members of the Wild Gang.
  • They first went to Argentina but eventually settled in Bolivia.
  • Etta left the two outlaws and returned to the US under an assumed name, predicting the men would die violently.
  • Her prophecy came true. It is believed that Sundance died in a Bolivian shootout in November, 1908.

Sources:

Nash, Jay Robert, “The Real Butch Cassidy and His Wild Bunch,” at  http://www.annalsofcrime.com/03-01.htm

Rosa, Joseph, G. Age of the Gunfighter: Man and Weapons on the Frontier, 1840-1900. Oklahoma: U of Oklahoma P, 1995.

Wikipedia, “Butch Cassidy’s Wild Bunch,” at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butch_Cassidy%27s_Wild_Bunch

___, “Sundance Kid,” at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sundance_Kid

Butch Cassidy’s Wild Bunch

Butch Cassidy’s Wild Bunch (a.k.a. The Hole in the Wall Gang)

  • The Wild Bunch Gang was founded by Butch Cassidy (Robert Leroy Parker) in a place known as Hole In The Wall, part of the Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming.
  • They were the most successful train-robbing outfit in history.
  • These colorful outlaws were active from 1899-1901.
  • Although they had a large ‘body-count’ between them, these desperados claimed never to have intentionally killed an innocent by-stander.
  • Famous members – aside from Butch Cassidy – included The Sundance Kid (Henry A. Longabaugh), Kid Curry (Harry Logan), News Carver (Will Carver), and The Tall Texan (Ben Kilpatrick).
  • There were a total of 19 train-robbers who branched out into bank, stagecoach, and store heists, as well as cattle and horse rustling.
  • They were often assisted by the Bassett Sisters (Ann and Josie) who supplied them with food, fresh horses, and female company.
  • What differentiated the Wild Bunch from other gangs is their intelligent planning and good-mannered bantering.
  • The gang broke up after Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid were forced to flee the United States.
  • Their fame and success ultimately attracted too much attention from the law!

Sources:

Nash, Jay Robert, “The Real Butch Cassidy and His Wild Bunch,” at  http://www.annalsofcrime.com/03-01.htm

Rosa, Joseph, G. Age of the Gunfighter: Man and Weapons on the Frontier, 1840-1900. Oklahoma: U of Oklahoma P, 1995.

Wikipedia, “Butch Cassidy’s Wild Bunch,” at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butch_Cassidy%27s_Wild_Bunch

 

Boiled Beef Dinner

Ingredients:

1 pint water

4lb corned beef

6 potatoes, cubed

I onion, chopped

6 carrots, sliced

1 turnip, quartered

1 butternut squash, cubed

1 cabbage, quartered

1 tablespoon salt

1 teaspoon pepper

 

Method:

  1. Place the corned beef in a large pot or deep skillet.
  2. Cover with the water.  Add the salt and pepper.
  3. Bring to the boil, cover, and reduce heat.  Cook for 3 hours until the meat turns tender.
  4. Stir in the potatoes, carrots, and turnip.  Boil for 30 minutes.
  5. Add the squash and cabbage.  Stir well.  Boil for an additional 15 minutes.
  6. Thoroughly mix everything together.  Serve piping hot.